So Ryan, I assume the computer is leaving you with a maintenance-mode shell, i.e. a text-only login, and you can't get to your desktop?
If at all possible you should get some linux geek to see to your laptop in person to fix this. But failing that:
What you need to do to fix it is just what it says at the top of the error message, run fsck manually. Most of the rest of the long error message, the stuff about bash and apt-get etc., is just knock-on effects due to the first error. Don't worry about them, just fix the first error and they will go away. So run fsck. Fsck is the name of a program, it's short for filesystem check. It will check your filesystem, the thing that contains all your files and folders, for errors and try to correct any errors it finds. Type fsck to run it. It will likely find errors in your filesystem and offer to correct them, just say yes to everything and click through it (using the keyboard, not the mouse).
That should fix your problem in the short-term. In the long-term, however, this little glitch may be a symptom of hard-drive failure. The message "An automatic file system check of the root filesystem failed" means that a problem was found with your filesystem, which is what contains all your files. These problems usually occur because of some "glitch" in the hard drive. i.e., a hardware fault, with the hard drive. When a hard drive starts producing glitches like this, it's likely the hard drive is dying, it will deteriorate and then break completely, and you will lose all your data. Not to be over-dramatic, but you should be thinking of getting everything backed up, and be prepared to have to get your hard drive replace at some point. It could also be a fault with some other part of your hardware, but the hard drive is the primary culprit.
If it makes you feel any better though, sometimes these glitches just happen, and then go away. The forest's server had exactly his problem a few months ago, we ran fsck and fixed it, it hasn't had any further problems since, is still running.
I'll be checking the board so let me know what happens.
I've had it with you. If I had an image of a laser gun I would absolutely position it right here in my hand...
Ha! I have a real laser absolutely positioned in my hand!